Working memory training and evaluation based on brain-computer interface and virtual reality: our opinion

Introduction of the article:

Working memory (WM) is the cognitive system necessary for the temporary storage and manipulation of information during complex tasks like reasoning, comprehension, and learning (Baddeley, 1992, 2010). Studies have shown that the WM capacity improves in response to working memory training (WMT) through purposeful guidance and targeted cognitive training (Shipstead et al., 2012; Melby-Lervåg and Hulme, 2013; Finc et al., 2020). How to conduct effective WM training and evaluation is a crucial research topic. With the development of science and technology, the combination of brain-computer interface (BCI) and virtual reality (VR) technology, called BCI-VR, is an emerging technology with great potential for effective WMT. The BCI-VR system combines the immersive sensory feedback of VR with real-time electroencephalography (EEG) signals of brain activity, making cognitive training more engaging and efficient compared to traditional methods (Elbamby et al., 2018; Wen et al., 2021). In recent years, BCI-VR has been widely used in the field of rehabilitation medicine for a variety of diseases, including autism (Amaral et al., 2017), stroke (Lechner et al., 2014; Vourvopoulos and Bermúdez I Badia, 2016), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Rohani and Puthusserypady, 2015), Parkinson’s disease (Morales-Gomez et al., 2018). However, the neuroimaging studies on BCI-VR in WM training and evaluation are still in its early stages, and more work needs to be done to ultimately effectively improve the WM capacity.


In this opinion article, the team analyzes the relevant literature on current WM training and EEG signal analysis methods for WM evaluation, illustrate the value of BCI-VR and its application in WMT, and discuss the current challenges, as well as potential future directions. It is expected that these analyses will shed light on the field of WMT.


This article cites Nesplora’s Aquarium research.

Duan D, Wu Z, Zhou Y, Wan X and Wen D (2023) Working memory training and evaluation based on brain-computer interface and virtual reality: our opinion. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 17:1291983. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2023.1291983

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