Tools for the Diagnosis of ADHD in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

CONTEXT: Correct diagnosis is essential for the appropriate clinical management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents.

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review provides an overview of the available diagnostic tools.

STUDY SELECTION: Any ADHD tool evaluation for the diagnosis of ADHD, requiring a reference standard of a clinical diagnosis by a mental health specialist.

RESULTS: In total, 231 studies met eligibility criteria. Studies evaluated parental ratings, teacher ratings, youth self-reports, clinician tools, neuropsychological tests, biospecimen, EEG, and neuroimaging. Multiple tools showed promising diagnostic performance, but estimates varied considerably across studies, with a generally low strength of evidence. Performance depended on whether ADHD youth were being differentiated from neurotypically developing children or from clinically referred children.

Bradley S. Peterson, MD; Joey Trampush, PhD; Morah Brown, MPH; Margaret Maglione, MPP; Maria Bolshakova, PhD; Mary Rozelle, MPH; Jeremy Miles, PhD; Sheila Pakdaman, PhD; Sachi Yagyu, MS; Aneesa Motala, BA; Susanne Hempel, PhD (2024), Tools for the Diagnosis of ADHD in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review. Pediatrics (2024) 153 (4): e2024065854.



This article includes within its references «Virtual reality-based assessment and rating scales in ADHD diagnosis«, published in 2019 by Aitziber Zulueta, Unai Díaz-Orueta, Nerea Crespo-Eguilaz, Fermín Torrano and that is strongly based on the use of Nesplora Aula for neuropsychological assessment. 

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